Английский язык Методическое пособие для Вузов

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Английский язык Методическое пособие для Вузов


Рекомендовано учебно — методическим объединением высших учебных заведений

Республики Беларусь по химико — технологическому образованию в качестве учебно — методического пособия для студентов

высших учебных заведений , обучающихся по химико — технологическим специальностям

Данное учебно-методическое пособие представляет собой комплекс текстов, соответствующих требованиям действующей программы по английскому языку для неязыковых вузов.

Цель пособия – развить и совершенствовать у студентов навыки различных видов чтения литературы на английском языке с выходом в устную речь.

Пособие, условно состоящее из двух частей, предназначено для студентов химико-технологических специальностей.

В первой части представлен материал по темам общеобразовательного характера: «Республика Беларусь», «Наш университет», «Великобритания», «Наука и технология», «Ученые и их изобретения».

Во второй части особое внимание уделяется дополнительному чтению текстов по той же тематике и стратегиям формирования навыков самостоятельной работы.

В пособии представлена полезная новейшая и актуальная информация по перечисленным темам, которая композиционно хорошо продумана и представляет собой четкое, ясное и логичное изложение.

Упражнения, предназначенные для работы с текстами, подобраны таким образом, чтобы основное внимание акцентировать на развитии у студентов умений читать и понимать литературу на английском языке, дифференцировать более и менее важную информацию и развить у них навыки монологической и диалогической речи.

В разделы пособия помещены также упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков самостоятельного продуцирования письменного текста.

При подборе заданий для текстов реализованы такие принципы, как языковая и содержательная доступность, а также принципы нарастания сложности материала.

Работа с материалом данного пособия поможет студентам приобрести соответствующий необходимый лексический минимум и сформировать языковые и речевые навыки и умения.

Пособие может быть использовано для работы со студентами I курса всех специальностей университета.

Part 1. The Place on Earth: General Description of the Republic of Belarus

Ex. 1. Make sure you know the following words and expressions: terrain n., combine v., inhabitant n., swath n., sloping ridges, glacial

debris, swampy plain, stream n., floating timber, tributary n., tract of forest, conifer n., deciduous trees, proximity n., precipitation n., excessive a., suffer v., spoil v., poison v., affect v., range n.

Ex. 2. Practice the pronunciation of the following words and geographical names:

Europe, Greece, Belgium, Denmark, Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Ukraine, Belarusian Range, the Belarusian Woodland, the Baltic Sea, the Dnieper, the Nieman, catastrophe, fauna, swath, percentage, association.

Ex. 3. Answer the following questions:

1. Why is Belarus called “blue-eyed”? 2. What are t he country’s main regions? 3. Which nationality groups make up the largest percentage of the total population? 4. In what part of Belarus does the vast majority of the population live? 5. Why was Belarus changed from a rural nation to an urban nation?

Ex. 4. Speak about the places of interest in the Republic of Belarus that you have visited.

Ex. 5. Read and translate the following text:

Belarus, a generally flat country situated practically in the center of Europe, occupies an area of 207,600 square kilometers. Its area is more than the combined size of Greece, Belgium and Denmark. Its neighbors are Russia to the east and northeast, Latvia to the north, Lithuania to the northwest, Poland to the west, and Ukraine to the south. The population is more than 10 million inhabitants.

Belarus’ mostly level terrain is broken up by the B elarusian Range, a swath of elevated territory, composed of individual highlands, that runs diagonally through the country from west-southwest to eastnortheast. Its highest point is the 346-meter Mount Dzerzhynskaya, named for Felix Dzerzhinskiy, head of Russia’s security apparatus under Stalin. Northern Belarus has a picturesque, hilly landscape with many lakes and gently sloping ridges created by glacial debris. In the south, about one-third of the republic’s territory around the Pripyat River is taken up by the low-lying swampy plain of the Belarusian Woodland (Polesye).

Belarus’ 3,000 streams and 10,000 lakes are major features of the landscape and are used for floating timber, shipping, and power generation. Major rivers are the west-flowing Zapadnaya Dvina and Nieman, and the south-flowing Dnieper with its tributaries, the Berezina, the Sozh, and the Prypyat. The largest lakes are the Naroch, the Osweyskoye and the Drisvyaty. Nearly one-third of the country is covered with puschas, large unpopulated tracts of forests. In the north, conifers predominate in forests that also include birch and alder; farther south, other deciduous trees grow. The Belavezhskaya Puscha in the far west is the oldest and most magnificent of the forests; a reservation here shelters animals and birds that became extinct elsewhere long ago. The pride of the reservation is the aurochs – a rare animal that has survived since the glacial times.

Because of the proximity of the Baltic Sea (257 kilometers at the closest point), the country’s climate is moderately continental. Winters last between 105 and 145 days, and summers last up to 150 days. The average temperature in January is –6°C, and the average tem perature for July is about +18°C, with high humidity. Average annual pre cipitation ranges from 550 to 700 millimeters and is sometimes excessive.

The nature of Belarus has suffered much from the nuclear catastrophe that took place in Chernobyl in 1986. The radiation has spoiled our soil and air, rivers and lakes; it has poisoned our flora and fauna. Besides it has badly affected the health of people and the climate.

Ex. 6. Complete each sentence using a word derivationally related to the word given in brackets:

1. The Republic of Belarus occupies an … geopolitic al position in the centre of Europe (advantage). 2. The territory of Belarus is crossed by the shortest ways of … from central and … regions of Ru ssia to West European countries, as well as between the Baltic and Black Seas (to communicate, east). 3. The distance from the state capital, Minsk, to capitals of the … states are: to Vilnius 215 km, to Riga 470 km, to Warsaw 550 km, to Kiev 580 km, and to Moscow 700 km (neighbor). 4. The … of Belaru s’ territory is 560 km from north to south and 650 km from west to east (long). 5. As for 1.01.2002, the … of the Republic of Belarus constituted about 9.99 million people with more than 100 ethnic groups (to populate). 6. Thirty … types of minerals have been found in the territory of the country and more than 4 thousand mineral deposits, of which 600 are under … (differ, to expl oit). 7. The climate … features are conditioned by the breath of the Atlantic Ocean (to specify). 8. The number of … at enterprises and … is 4.34 millio n people; of them, 1.14 million persons are employed in industries, and 0.51 million people in agriculture (to employ, to organize). 9. The Republic of Belarus consists of 6

regions which include 118 administrative districts and the City of Minsk. There are 110 towns and 108 … with the status of a town (to settle).

Ex. 7. Match the words to their definitions:

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